Definitions


Abandoned baby

Abandoned baby refers to an infant left alone without c are– usually within the first week after birth where there was evidence of a live birth.


Abuse

Abuse has been defined in the Oxford Dictionary as to ‘use to bad effect or for a bad purpose, treat with cruelty or violence, assault sexually and address in an insulting and offensive way’.

This definition encompasses the subtypes of abuse which include: physical, emotional, sexual, financial, psychological, verbal, neglect, harassment and stalking. One or more of these forms of abuse can be used to gain and / or maintain power and control over another person.


Abuser

Abuser is someone who consistently tries to wield and hold power and control over another person by using physical, economic, emotional, psychological and / or sexual abuse. This can be a man or a woman, although most abusers are male.


Child Homicide

 Child Homicide is the death of a child under the age of 18 years due to the actions of another


Child Homicide

Child Homicide related to child abuse and neglect is the death of a child due to either physical, sexual abuse, neglect or negligence, in the context of a relationship of responsibility and care i.e. perpetrated by a parent, caregiver or in the context of sexual assault, and confirmed by a police investigation.


DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is often referred to as the “blueprint of life.” DNA is the genetic material present in the nucleus of cells which is inherited half from each biological parent. DNA is a chemical substance contained in cells, which determines each person’s individual characteristics. An individual’s DNA is unique except in cases of identical twins.


Domestic Violence

Domestic Violence or violence by an intimate partner is characterised by one person in a relationship using a pattern of behaviours to control another person. This can happen to people who are married, divorced, cohabiting, heterosexual, gay, lesbian, transgender; living together, separated or dating relationships.


Female homicide

 Female homicide is the murder of a woman by an intimate or non-intimate person.


Gender-based violence (GBV)

Gender-based violence (GBV) is a form of discrimination which uses violence directed against a person on the basis of gender. GBV reflects and reinforces inequalities between men and women. GBV and violence against women are often used interchangeably, as most GBV is inflicted by men on women and girls.


Grooming

Grooming is a process of identifying and engaging a child in sexual activity, which involves an imbalance of power and elements of coercion and manipulation, with the motivation and intent to sexually exploit the child.


Intimate femicide

Intimate femicide is the murder of a woman by an intimate partner.


Non-intimate femicide

Non-intimate femicide is the murder of a woman by someone other than an intimate partner i.e. a stranger or someone with whom she did not have an intimate relationship.


Rape

Rape is the use of force, typically by a man, to have sexual intercourse with the victim against their will. Rape is an act of sexual penetration of a victim, without their consent and it occurs when:

  • Someone inserts their genital organs into the mouth, anus or genital organs of a victim
  • Any part of someone’s body, such as a finger, goes into the anus or genital organs of the victim
  • Any object, like a stick or a bottle is put into the anus or genital organs of the victim
  • The genital organs of an animal are put into the mouth of the victim (Sexual Offences and Related Matters Amendment Act, No. 32 of 2007.

Rape homicide

Rape homicide is the murder of someone with a sexual component


Victim

Victim, also called survivors, are persons, usually women and children who may be alive or have died as a result of abuse.


Violence

Violence is the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, stunted development, or deprivation.